Ravindra Primbon

e-primbon for English Task

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Hi Guys,
This is My last writing in my Primbon’s..
Okay..
Now, We will learn about Direct and Indirect speech...





























DIRECT SPEECH

Direct speech refers to reproducing another person’s exact words or saying exactly what someone has said (sometimes called quoted speech)
Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word.

For example:
She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations."
or
"Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.



INDIRECT SPEECH

Indirect speech reproducing the idea of another person’s words that doesn’t use question mark to enclose what the person said and it doesn’t have to be word for word. Indirect speech is sometimes called reported speech

For example:
Direct speech   :"I'm going to the cinema", he said.
Indirect speech : He said he was going to the cinema.


TENSE CHANGE

Present simple
Past tense

direct                    : Vita said “ I eat fried rice”
indirect                 : Vita said that  she ate fried rice.

Past simple
Past perfect

direct                    : Mother said “ I went to market yesterday”
indirect                 : Mother said (that) she had gone to market the day before.

 Future simple
Past future

direct                    : Dave said “ I will buy an i-pod next week’
indirect                 : Dave said (that) he would buy an i-pod the week after

Present continuous
Past continuous

direct                    : Gama said “ I’m playing football”
indirect                 : Gama said he was playing football

Past continuous
Past perfect continuous

direct                    : She said “ I was teaching earlier”
indirect                 : She said she had been teaching earlier


when we want to report what someone said , wedon’t usually repeat their exact words , we use our words , we can use reporting words such as tell say as follow by “that clause”

Example  :
my  mother said that she got up at 4 o’clock


 
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Hmmm…
This day is very hot..
But, that all replaceable while comes unto house
Because, my mother cook KWE TIAW in kitchen…

Look this..!
This is Kwe Tiaw ala my mother’s.























Okay.
Now I will explain you about vocabulary around the house. Let's check this out



Rooms in a House
• balcony
• bathroom
• bedroom
• dining room
• garage
• hall
• kitchen
• laundry
• living room

Things in a Bedroom
• alarm
• bed
• bedside table
• clock
• drawers
• dressing table
• lamp
• wardrobe, closet

Things in a Bathroom
• basin, sink
• bath
• mirror
• shower
• taps
• toilet
• towel rack

Things in a Kitchen
• bench
• cupboard
• dishwasher
• microwave
• oven, cooker
• pantry
• refrigerator, fridge
• sink
• stove, cooktop
• taps

Things in a Living Room

• arm chair
• bookcase
• chairs
• coffee table
• fan
• foot rest
• heater
• lounge, sofa, couch
• magazine rack
• recliner
• sound system
• table
• telephone, phone
• television stand
• television, TV

Things in a Dining Room

• chairs
• dining table

Things in a Study
• chair
• computer
• desk
• filing cabinet
• shelf

Things in a Laundry
• clothes maiden, drying rack
• dryer
• iron
• ironing board
• laundry basket
• pegs
• sink
• washing machine
• washing powder

Furniture
• armchair
• bed
• bookcase
• cabinet
• chair
• chest
• coffee table
• cupboard
• desk
• dining table
• drawers
• dressing table
• foot stool, foot rest
• lamp
• lounge, sofa, couch
• office chair
• sideboard, buffet
• stool
• TV stand
• wardrobe

Bills and Utilities
• council charges
• electricity
• gas
• insurance
• rent
• telephone
• water



























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Hi guys.. 

Are you ready to learn about the passive voice?
If you have, let's immediately read that lesson right now!
Hopefully you can make a sentence passive voice well after reading my primbon's.
Happy reading!

 

 

Passive Voice

The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The active voice is the "normal" voice. But sometimes we need the passive voice. In this lesson we look at how to construct the passive voice, when to use it and how to conjugate it.

 

Construction of the Passive Voice

The structure of the passive voice is very simple:
subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)
The main verb is always in its past participle form.
Look at these examples:

subject
auxiliary verb (to be)

main verb (past participle)

Water
is

drunk
by everyone.
100 people
are

employed
by this company.
I
am

paid
in euro.
We
are
not
paid
in dollars.
Are
they

paid
in yen?

Use of the Passive Voice

We use the passive when:
  • we want to make the active object more important
  • we do not know the active subject

subject
verb
object
give importance to active object (President Kennedy)
President Kennedy
was killed
by Lee Harvey Oswald.
active subject unknown
My wallet
has been stolen.
?

Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats).
Look at this sentence:
  • He was killed with a gun.
Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. But the gun is not the active subject. The gun did not kill him. He was killed by somebody with a gun. In the active voice, it would be: Somebody killed him with a gun. The gun is the instrument. Somebody is the "agent" or "doer".

 

Conjugation for the Passive Voice

We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. To form the required tense, we conjugate the auxiliary verb. So, for example:
  • present simple: It is made
  • present continuous: It is being made
  • present perfect: It has been made
Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses:

infinitive
to be washed
simple
present
It is washed.
past
It was washed.
future
It will be washed.
conditional
It would be washed.
continuous
present
It is being washed.
past
It was being washed.
future
It will be being washed.
conditional
It would be being washed.
perfect simple
present
It has been washed.
past
It had been washed.
future
It will have been washed.
conditional
It would have been washed.
perfect continuous
present
It has been being washed.
past
It had been being washed.
future
It will have been being washed.
conditional
It would have been being washed.


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Do you know how to preposition in, on, and at?
Here you will learn all about the preposition in, on, and at.

Preposition in, on, and at is divided into two, namely:
1. Preposition of Time; in, on, and at
2. Preposition of Place; in, on, and at


Here is the explanation.

1. Prepositions of Time: at, in, on

We use:
  • at for a PRECISE TIME
  • in for MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS
  • on for DAYS and DATES
 at
in
on
PRECISE TIME
MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS
DAYS and DATES
at 3 o'clock
in May
on Sunday
at 10.30am
in summer
on Tuesdays
at noon
in the summer
on 6 March
at dinnertime
in 1990
on 25 Dec. 2010
at bedtime
in the 1990s
on Christmas Day
at sunrise
in the next century
on Independence Day
at sunset
in the Ice Age
on my birthday
at the moment
in the past/future
on New Year's Eve
Look at these examples:
  • I have a meeting at 9am.
  • The shop closes at midnight.
  • Jane went home at lunchtime.
  • In England, it often snows in December.
  • Do you think we will go to Jupiter in the future?
  • There should be a lot of progress in the next century.
  • Do you work on Mondays?
  • Her birthday is on 20 November.
  • Where will you be on New Year's Day?

Notice the use of the preposition of time at in the following standard expressions:

Expression
Example
at night
The stars shine at night.
at the weekend
I don't usually work at the weekend.
at Christmas/Easter
I stay with my family at Christmas.
at the same time
We finished the test at the same time.
at present
He's not home at present. Try later.

Notice the use of the prepositions of time in and on in these common expressions:

in
on
in the morning
on Tuesday morning
in the mornings
on Saturday mornings
in the afternoon(s)
on Sunday afternoons
in the evening(s)
on Monday evening

When we say last, next, every, this we do not also use at, in, on.
  • I went to London last June. (not in last June)
  • He's coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday)
  • I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter)
  • We'll call you this evening. (not in this evening)

2. Prepositions of Place: at, in, on

     In general, we use:
  • at for a POINT
  • in for an ENCLOSED SPACE
  • on for a SURFACE
at
in
on
POINT
ENCLOSED SPACE
SURFACE
at the corner
in the garden
on the wall
at the bus stop
in London
on the ceiling
at the door
in France
on the door
at the top of the page
in a box
on the cover
at the end of the road
in my pocket
on the floor
at the entrance
in my wallet
on the carpet
at the crossroads
in a building
on the menu
at the front desk
in a car
on a page

Look at these examples:
  • Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop.
  • The shop is at the end of the street.
  • My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late.
  • When will you arrive at the office?
  • Do you work in an office?
  • I have a meeting in New York.
  • Do you live in Japan?
  • Jupiter is in the Solar System.
  • The author's name is on the cover of the book.
  • There are no prices on this menu.
  • You are standing on my foot.
  • There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall.
  • I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London.
Notice the use of the prepositions of place atin and on in these standard expressions:

at
in
on
at home
in a car
on a bus
at work
in a taxi
on a train
at school
in a helicopter
on a plane
at university
in a boat
on a ship
at college
in a lift (elevator)
on a bicycle, on a motorbike
at the top
in the newspaper
on a horse, on an elephant
at the bottom
in the sky
on the radio, on television
at the side
in a row
on the left, on the right
at reception
in Oxford Street
on the way




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This is a lesson about the offering.
In this lesson there are ways to receive and reject an offering. Hopefully you can implement in your daily activities.
  

Definition of Offering :

1. The act of making an offer.
2. Something, such as stock, that is offered.
3. A presentation made to a deity as an act of religious worship or sacrifice; an oblation.
4. A contribution or gift, especially one made at a religious service.


Offering to older people:
  • Would you like a cup of coffee, Mr. Green?
  • Should I get you a bottle of water?
  • Could I offer you a glass of lemonade, Mrs. Lina?
  • Would you care for some salad ?
Offering to friends:
  • Want some?
  • Have some.
  • Chocolate?
  • Glass of lemonade?
  • Grab some for yourself.
  • Would you like to have a pancake?
  • Why don’t you have some lemonade?
  • What can I get for you?
  • What will you have?

Accepting an offer:
  • Thank you
  • Yes, please
  • I’d like it very much
  • Thank you, I would
  • That would be very nice

Declining an offer:
  • No, thanks.
  • No, I really won’t. Thank you.
  • Not for me, thanks.
  • No, thanks. I’m not hungry.
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